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A draw in chess – what is it, in which cases a draw is made?

A draw in chess is the result of a game in which there is no winner or loser. Both opponents get half a point if the game ends in a draw,

A draw in a game can be recorded in the following cases:

1. Ended up material to continue further struggle.

There is no way to checkmate if you have:

two kings;
by king and elephant of the same color;
king and two horses against one king.
A draw cannot be fixed if there are pieces or pawns on the board, and theoretically it is possible to checkmate, even cooperative. A cooperative mat is used in tasks that relate to the field of “fairy-tale chess.” Black does not oppose the opponent, but helps checkmate his king.

The presence of a pawn or a piece on the weak side in certain positions makes it possible to checkmate with two knights.

2. Triple repetition of a position.

The conditions must be met:

the turn in all three cases belongs to the same player;
in all cases there are equally possible moves, including castling, taking on the aisle.
It takes into account the fact that a certain piece is on a particular board floor. So, if two black knights swapped – the position was repeated.

When repeating a position on the board three times, not necessarily by repeating moves, each side may require a draw. Such a situation usually arises when both sides are satisfied with a draw, and the players deliberately repeat the position.

3. Consent to a draw on the proposal of one of the parties.

Players agreed to a draw by mutual agreement. You can offer a draw when it’s the turn of the opponent. To offer a draw, it is enough to say “draw”. If the opponent makes a move without reacting to the offer, it is not accepted.

A sign of a bad tone – to offer a draw twice, you must wait for the opponent’s offer. You cannot take back an offer made to an opponent about a draw.

4. The eternal check.

There are many options for the eternal check, most often they are used to escape from defeat. The eternal check leads to a draw due to a threefold repetition of a position or to the rule of 50 moves.

In the course of black there is an eternal check. 1. … FC1 + 2. KRA2 FC2 + 3. KRA1 FC1 + 4. KRA2 FC2 +.

5. Pat.

Pat is declared in a situation where one of the parties does not have the ability to move a single piece. Often used by the party that loses.
White’s move, the choice is small: 1. Kc6 pat. With another move, they lose a pawn. After this move by White, the black king has no options left to continue the game, as at any possible move he receives a check.

 

6. 50 moves without taking and moving pawns.

The opponents made the last 50 moves, and no one took the opponent’s piece and did not make a single move with pawns. Any of the participants can fix a draw.

7. The player has expired, and his opponent does not have enough material to declare the mat.

To reduce the number of draws in some professional tournaments, the International Chess Federation (FIDE) introduces a special rule according to which it is forbidden to offer the opponent a draw before a certain move.

The purpose of the introduction of the Sofia rules is the eradication of contractual games, mainly short draws by mutual agreement. Players play the standard version of the debut, which is forced to end in a draw, or agree to a draw at the beginning of the game. The name came from the 2005 international tournament in Sofia, where the rules first applied.

According to Sofia rules, a player is forbidden to offer a draw directly to his opponent, with the exception of cases of three-fold repetition of a position, perpetual check, theoretically draw. Only the chief arbiter has the authority to fix a draw in the above cases.

In the section of humor, one can attribute the case of Grandmaster P. Keres. Keres had a simultaneous game. Having moved a pawn from e2 to e4 on one of the boards, he went up to it a second time and found that the pawn was in its initial position. The grandmaster again moved the pawn to e4. Going to the same board for the third time, Keres saw a pawn on the e2-square.

Not understanding what was going on, the grandmaster decided to watch his opponent and again moved the pawn to e4. Opposite Keres, with an artful expression on his face, sat an 85-year-old amateur who, having seen a pawn on e4, exclaimed with joy: “Draw! Triple repetition of the position. ”

A tragicomic moment occurred in the game of E. Gufeld – I. Dorfman in the 43rd championship of the USSR in 1975.

Gufeld ponders the position and understands that he must win. In one of the options he is convinced that to win the advantage is not enough. Frustrated, he says to himself what happened out loud: “Is it really a draw?” Dorfman, hearing the word “draw”, took it as a proposal for a peace. Gufeld automatically chose the best continuation of 40. Cb5 (threat 41.d6). Dorfman, making sure that after 40 … Kpc8 41. Cc6 L: h3 42. La7 or 41 … Cb8 42. Rf7 White must win, said: “I agree.”

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